My place of work builds spacecraft and instruments that fly on other folks' spacecraft. So one of the things that we need to do is to come up with a list of publications that use our data. It's the same thing with telescopes and it ends up being a lot more difficult than you might expect. There are a few articles on how to do it from ADS staff and from librarians from ESO (Uta Grothkopf and co-authors), STSCI, and other telescopes. It turns out that you really have to do a full text search to get closer to comprehensive. ADS has a fulltext search covering some things, but I asked the experts in the Physics-Math-Astro Division of SLA and many of them also use the fulltext searches on the journal publisher pages (which are of varying quality). I found that Google Scholar was the only thing that got book chapters. This is all pretty complicated if your instrument has a pretty common name or a name that is a very common word.
Other suggestions were to use funding data from Web of Science or elsewhere (soon to be part of CrossRef data), but that really only gets the science team for the instrument. Our main point is to find out who is downloading the data from the NASA site (or elsewhere?) and doing good science with it.
Heather Piwowar has done a lot of research on data citation (is it done, how do you find it), but I believe mostly with life sciences data. Joe Hourclé has also presented several times on data citation and there is the DataCite organization to work on this issue. But this is all future stuff. Right now it's the wild west.